By Th. Assmann, O. Nolte, H. Reuter (auth.), K. Desender, M. Dufrêne, M. Loreau, M. L. Luff, J-P. Maelfait (eds.)

The Carabidae shape one of many biggest and most sensible studied households of bugs, taking place in approximately each terrestrial habitat. The contributions integrated during this publication hide a huge spectrum of contemporary study into this beetle family members, with an emphasis on quite a few elements of ecology and evolution. They deal either with person carabid species, for instance in reviews on inhabitants and reproductive biology or lifestyles historical past quite often, and with floor beetle groups, as exemplified in papers treating assemblages in common habitats, on agricultural land and in forests. Disciplines diversity from biogeography and faunistics, over morphology, taxonomy and phylogenetics, ecophysiology and useful ecology, to inhabitants, neighborhood, conservation and panorama ecology.
This quantity is the results of the eighth ecu Carabidologists' assembly, 2d overseas Symposium of Carabidology, September 1-4, 1992, Belgium.

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Extra resources for Carabid Beetles: Ecology and Evolution

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Mahunka), Vol. , pp. 139-153. Akademiai Kiad6, Budapest. Horion, A. (1941) Faunistik der deutschen Kafer. Band I: Adephaga - Caraboidea. Wien. Jeannel, R. (1942) Co/eopteres Carabiques. Faune de France, 40, Paris. Lindroth. H. (1986) The Carabidae (Coleoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica, Vol. 15, part 2. Brill/Scandinavian Press, Leiden, Copenhagen. Mandl. K. & Schonmann, R. (1978) Catalogus faunae Austriae. Ein systematisches Verzeichnis aller dsterreichischem Gebiet festgestel/ten Tierarten.

Most of these carabids are rapid runners (or fast walkers), and faceting allows the intersegmental muscles to lock the prothorax against the mesothorax; this presumably increases the efficiency of rapid running by reducing possible body undulations. In collared species (usually with closed pro coxal cavities and a conjunct mesothorax), flexible jointing is combined with a stronger waist structure which is also better suited to carabids which are more powerful pushers. Pushing-related features Much of the rest of the ground beetle's shape and external structure reflects a suite of adaptations for pushing, both horizontal pushing and especially wedge-pushing (Evans 1977, 1986, 1991; Forsythe 1981, 1983a; Evans & Forsythe 1984).

We emphasize that the circular hypothesis is largely supported by the morphological analysis of the internal sacs that are optimal indicators of the actual (and past) gene floods among closely related species. 23 The Evolutionary History The oldest Abax species were probably pliocenic humid forest dwellers related to the older mediterranean Percus Bonelli. They developed on alluvial soils a new way in the larval stage to catch lumbricids by searching on the surface of the leaf litter. The adults protected the eggs with earth capsules (we found that pyraeneus also behaves in the same manner).

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