By Y. Couder (auth.), Vincent Fleury, Jean-François Gouyet, Marc Léonetti (eds.)

There's expanding facts that branching strategies in nature continue by way of comparable mechanisms in lots of doubtless various structures. this is often the 1st complete ebook facing this subject - it encompasses all fields of technological know-how, investigating branching morphogenesis and development formation in cells, vegetation, organs and river networks to call yet a number of. well known overseas researchers have contributed to this quantity and brought care that the lectures stay available to graduate scholars and nonspecialist researchers.

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Extra resources for Branching in Nature: Dynamics and Morphogenesis of Branching Structures, from Cell to River Networks

Sample text

In tomato, the shoot apical meristem forms 6 - 10 vegetative type phytomers consisting of an elongated internode, a leaf and an axillary meristem. The apical meristem will then produce the first inflorescence. Growth will resurne from the uppermost axillary meristem, which is called the sympodial meristem. Three more leafy phytomers are formed before the meristem produces the second inflorescence, giving rise to a sympodial unit. Although each sympodial unit is determinate, the whole shoot has an indeterminate growth because the number of units that can potentially be formed is not limited.

F_ j . -\ / -j \! 'f n ---Il===-==-if\ ! l I \. : . Fig. 10. - Spontaneous versus traumatic branching. Without a traumatism (arrows) no branching would have occurred. The traumatism induces the regeneration of the damaged axis, which could be either a trunk (bot tom, a young oak) or a branch (top, an Araucaria). But branching of a given stern can also be triggered by a darnage on this stern. Figure 10 shows two cases in which, without the stern having been chopped, no branching would have occurred; this is what tree architects call traurnatic branching.

Fig. 8. - 9. Immediate branching (top) versus delayed branching (bottom). HOMOGENEOUS vs. DIFFERENTIATED BRANCHING In a big oak, for instance, all the twigs forming themselves into the crown's canopy tend to grow vertically, they all have a rhythmic growth and they all bear flowers and fruits. The collection of branches is then homogeneous, and this is correlated with small branching angles (Fig. 9). A first possible situation is properly described as homogeneous branching. If the branching angles are wider, a differentiation is usually observed between the many axis forming the tree crown.

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