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The guard tube should always be fitted at an angle so that any liquid accumulating in it drains away from the reaction mixture. Drying Reactants Drying of reactants is discussed on p. 157. Many solvents, such as ethanol, are hygroscopic and must be kept in well-stoppered 49 bottles. An important exception is ether drying over sodium; this must be stored in a vented container to permit escape of hydrogen produced by reaction between water and sodium; a calcium chloride tube is usually sufficient.

Addition of halide in the Grignard reaction). SOLVENT The speed and direction of a reaction can be affected by the choice of solvent. Any reaction must be preceded by collision of 39 40 BASIC TECHNIQUES OF PREPARATIVE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY the molecules of the reactants; the number of collisions will be much smaller if the reactants are not in the same phase, whether they be two immiscible liquids, a solid insoluble in a liquid, or two solids. In organic chemistry, a homogeneous reaction mixture is nearly always achieved by using a solvent; melting the reactants for this purpose is usually inconvenient and may not be feasible because many organic compounds tend to decompose when heated beyond their melting points.

For example, in a Claisen condensation reaction the ester is not very highly inflammable, but the use of sodium requires special care. Hydrogen will be evolved in the reaction, and so there is a risk of explosion. If a fire should start, it is essential to know the right kind of extinguisher to use. Because of the presence of sodium, the use of water as afire-extinguishingmedium could be disastrous. If, in spite of all precautions, a fire should start, it cannot be too strongly emphasized that the only immediate and instantaneous demand on everyone concerned is to do nothing at all except move away from the area involved, and think.

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