By Juliet Pietsch, Haydn Aarons

The latter years of the 1st decade of the twenty-first century have been characterized via an incredible quantity of problem and alter to Australia and Australians. Australia’s half in those demanding situations and alterations is borne of our family and international ties, our orientation in the direction of ourselves and others, and an ever expanding information of the interdependency of our global. demanding situations and adjustments similar to terrorism, weather swap, human rights, group breakdown, paintings and livelihood, and crime aren't new yet they tackle new diversifications and impression on us in numerous methods in occasions equivalent to those. during this quantity we think about those contemporary demanding situations and alterations and the way Australians themselves believe approximately them less than 3 issues: identification, worry and governance. those subject matters definitely trap the troubles of Australians in instances of such swap. id is our feel of ourselves and the way others see us. How is that this stricken by the elevated presence of spiritual range, in particular Islamic groups, and elevated wisdom of ethical and political responsibilities in the direction of Indigenous Australians? How is it stricken by our curious yet altering dating with Asia? worry is an emotional response to specific alterations and demanding situations and produces specific responses from contributors, politicians, groups and international locations alike; worry of crime, worry of terrorism and worry of swap are all thought of during this volume.** [C:\Users\Microsoft\Documents\Calibre Library]

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Public opinion showed that there was some resistance to the notion of a closer engagement with Asia (McAllister and Ravenhill 1998). In fact, findings from public opinion research suggest that Keating was well ahead of his time. Furthermore, the large number of Asian migrants reactivated the appeal of new parties that formed during the 1990s: Australia First and One Nation (Jupp 2001). In 1996, Pauline Hanson expressed the following concerns about Asian immigration in her maiden speech in Federal Parliament: I and most Australians want our immigration policy radically reviewed and that of multiculturalism abolished.

Australians are also quite familiar with and keen consumers of selections of Asian popular culture including film, literature and music. Manga comics and anime films from Japan have a devoted following in Australia as they do in other non-Asian countries (Sugimoto 2003). Martial arts such as karate and Tae Kwon Do are also more familiar forms of Asian cultural engagement that Australians have embraced. Perhaps the most visible and tangible Australian engagement with Asia, however, is through food, and while some Asian cultures (for example, Nepal and Sri Lanka) have only recently enabled Australians to taste their culinary offerings, Chinese restaurants of all sorts have been a feature of Australian cities and country towns for many decades.

Social distance and social proximity Even less literature directly relates to the second question: what is the level of social distance and social proximity between non-Indigenous and Aboriginal Australians? The primary research tool used to measure social distance between ethnic groups is the Bogardus social distance scale, developed in the United States in the 1920s. The scale assesses respondents’ degree of warmth, indifference or hostility to levels of social relationships, which are then taken as a measure of ethnic relations and prejudice (Marshall 1998).

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