By G. Slutkin (auth.), Prof. F. Paccaud, Dr. J. P. Vader, Prof. F. Gutzwiller (eds.)

In so much nations, fundamental prevention programmes opposed to the HIV / AIDS epidemic were carried out. generally, 3 degrees of intervention could be pointed out: - nationwide campaigns directed to the overall inhabitants; so much of them are multi section campaigns geared toward delivering information regarding HIV transmission and protecting behaviour; they use many of the mass media channels and are frequently directed to sexual behaviour modifi­ cation; - community-based interventions, addressed to precise objective popula­ tions; those populations were normally chosen in accordance with either the excessive chance of an infection (gay males and prostitutes) and the trouble to arrive the individuals of those groups (intravenous drug users); - person checking out and counselling, usually supported by way of public cash or huge non-governmental agencies. significant efforts were dedicated to the advance and the implemen­ tation of those preventive programmes, either by way of human re­ assets and monetary aid. nonetheless, in so much nations, some distance much less strength has been placed into the review of those campaigns. This hole isn't really defined via the truth that review of AIDS/HIV cam­ paigns is a unconditionally new problem by way of technique: there are classical tools, built over two decades and utilized in different fields of prevention.

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Extra info for Assessing AIDS Prevention: Selected papers presented at the international conference held in Montreux (Switzerland), October 29–November 1, 1990

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48 6 000 2500 5500 2250 5000 2000 4500 -4 000 +-----+- ---- .... 1750 ';-. -t... + '00 0 500 250 500 76 77 76 79 60 61 62 63 6' 65 66 YEAR Figure 10. Total male gonorrhoea cases and male isolates. Praed St Clinic, St Mary's Hospital, Paddington. 1983, 1984, 1985 and 1986. The data were published in a letter, the final line of which is quoted at the bottom of the figure. Figure 10 shows the same data plotted together with the number of cases of gonorrhoea notified to the Department of Health by the same clinic between 1976 and 1986.

A similar but earlier trend in mean number of anal intercourse partners and a decline in city-wide notifications of gonorrhoea are also shown. On the face of it these data might be interpreted as providing empirical support for the notion that gonorrhoea incidence closely reflects HIV incidence, in a situation where HIV is endemic. There are two important reasons why we should not rush to accept this view. Firstly, while the frequency of rectal gonorrhoea is measured in the whole city population, that of HIV is only measured in the cohort.

Case Notification: The proportion of diagnosed cases which are notified will depend on whether the notification is compulsory, the existence of incentives, and the complexity of the notification process. 44 This latter is particularly important. If we try to enhance our ability to interpret surveillance data by including more comprehensive details of cases, the complexity of the process is increased. This in turn may lead to the lowering of notification rates. Aggregation and Reporting Major problems of interpretation of notification based data relate to the determination of the size of the at-risk population.

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