By Ron G. Manley (auth.), Joseph F. Bunnett, Marian Mikołajczyk (eds.)
More than ten million `poison fuel' shells, mortar bombs, etc., lie hidden in Europe, lots of them relics from international conflict I. a few have been fired and did not detonate, others have been deserted in outdated ammunition dumps. such a lot continue their load of chemical war (CW) brokers. they're became up day-by-day during farming and building. Many ecu international locations have everlasting departments inquisitive about their assortment and destruction.
outdated munitions, while chanced on, tend to be seriously corroded and hard to spot. Is it a CW munition? Or an explosive? If CW, what agent does it comprise? as soon as pointed out, one has to choose a destruction process. a few of the tools which have been proposed are lower than excellent, and are frequently complex via the presence of extraneous chemical substances, both combined with the CW brokers in the course of manufacture or shaped over a long time within the floor.
Of specific curiosity are the insiders' experiences at the German CW programmes of either global Wars, and the present prestige of Russian chemical armaments.
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Extra resources for Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems in the Destruction of Old Arsenical and ‘Mustard’ Munitions
The location and number of "unofficial" dumps is usually unknown, as most of the archives were destroyed, and witnesses are becoming increasingly rare. The proportion of munitions described as "chemical" is assessed to be less than 10%. Only one compound ("mustard gas") appears in Schedule 1 of the Convention. The other agents, after removal from their container may, in principle, be destroyed by treatment in an approved industrial chemical waste plant. It is clear that recovery of these compounds is a difftcult or even impossible task, and offers no beneftt.
2. EVALUATION OF NUMBER OF ITEMS The number of loaded shells per combatant country breaks down as follows: FRANCE 16 MILLION 33 MILLION GERMANY GREAT BRITAIN 4 MILLION USA 1 MILLION 19 Shells of all calibres (75 to 210 mm) were the main type of munition used. Others were mortars and bombs of various sizes, with the explosive charge varying from about a hundred grams up to 8 kg. A number of shells were transferred, mainly from France to allies: BELGIUM 193000 USA 948000 GREECE 12000 ITALY 92000 PORTUGAL 46000 RUSSIA 12000 ROUMANIA 50000 The percentage of misftres was usually between 20 and 25%, which means that at a rough estimate more than 10 million objects may have been left buried on old battlefteld sites.
Treaty Obligations The problems posed by the elimination of old chemical deposits that still exist within a country's territory can no longer be addressed at a purely national level, but must be considered in the light of the liabilities ensuing from the signature and ratification by the member state of the text of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction. This treaty, signed in January 1993 in Paris, contained two clauses referring to the elimination of chemical arsenals and the destruction of old or abandoned chemical weapons.