By Brian Duignan

Even ahead of the unfold of Christianity all through Europe, participants started to call for a scientific option to view the worlda approach to replacement order for chaos. Supplanting legendary factors with these in keeping with commentary, early Greeks and a few in their contemporaries sought to understand worldly phenomena when it comes to extra common truths. This ebook introduces readers to the figures instrumental in enforcing this subtle state of mind, together with Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. It additionally examines the impact of those thinkers at the significant religions of the time, specifically, Judaism and Christianity.

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Extra info for Ancient Philosophy: From 600 BCE to 500 CE (The History of Philosophy)

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Another prominent follower of Socrates in the early 4th century BCE, Antisthenes, emphasized the Socratic doctrine that a good man cannot be harmed; virtue, in other words, is by itself sufficient for happiness. That doctrine played a central role in a school of thought, founded by Diogenes of Sinope, that had an enduring influence on Greek and Roman philosophy: Cynicism. Like Socrates, Diogenes was concerned solely with ethics, practiced his philosophy in the marketplace, and upheld an ideal of indifference to material possessions, political power, and conventional honours.

Its powerful advocacy of the examined life and its condemnation of Athenian democracy have made it one of the central documents of Western thought and culture. 32 The Philosophy of Socrates His Life and Personality Although literary and philosophical sources provide only a small amount of information about the life and personality of Socrates, a unique and vivid picture is available to us in the works of Plato. We know the names of his father, Sophroniscus (probably a stonemason), his mother, Phaenarete, and his wife, Socrates, herm with a restored nose probably copied from the Greek origiXanthippe, and we know nal by Lysippus, c.

Corresponding to these personal qualities was his commitment to the doctrine that reason, properly cultivated, can and ought to be the all-controlling factor in human life. Thus he has no fear of death, he says in Plato’s Apology, because he has no knowledge of what comes after it, and he holds that, if anyone does fear death, his fear can be based only on a pretense of knowledge. The assumption underlying this claim is that, once one has given sufficient thought to some matter, one’s emotions will follow suit.

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