By Bhamidimarri, Rao

Court cases of the overseas convention held at Massey collage, Palmerston North, New Zealand, 26-27 might 1988

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Aquatic plant systems appear to have potential to be incorporated into the sewage treatment systems for small to medium communities, particularly in rural areas where land is more readily available. The main advantages of the use of aquatic plant systems for sewage treatment are the low capital and operating costs, and simple design and operation involving no complex, energy consuming equipment. Aquatic plant systems require little technical back-up. Because the major operational requirements are the maintenance of good plant health and subsurface flow, the use of aquatic plant systems should be suitable for farming communities in developing countries.

The observed decrease in soil pH indicates the need for periodic liming unless a source of lime exists in the effluent, such as might occur at a plant with an attached fellmongery [13]. Denitrification and Ammonia Volatilisation Two other mechanisms by which nitrogen may be lost from the soil/plant system are microbial denitrification and volatilisation of ammonia. Field measurements of the nitrous oxide losses and the nitrous oxide: nitrogen gas production ratio on our plots loaded at 1200 kg N ha−1 y−1 suggest that total denitrification losses were less than 2% of the total nitrogen applied [1].

When designing effluent irrigation schemes, nitrogen losses due to these mechanisms should be ignored. If, then, on a particular soil type these mechanisms are significant, this approach will lead to a conservative design. Microbiological Aspects Immediately after irrigation of pasture with primary-treated effluent at a rate of 1000 kg N ha−1 y−1, faecal coliform numbers on the herbage ranged between 2×104 and 3×106 per g (dry weight). Throughout all months of the year these numbers were reduced by at least 99% over a 12-day period.

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