By Robert Bogdan Staszewski

A brand new and leading edge paradigm for RF frequency synthesis and instant transmitter designLearn the concepts for designing and imposing an all-digital RF frequency synthesizer. unlike conventional RF ideas, this leading edge ebook units forth digitally in depth layout options that paved the way to the advance of inexpensive, low-power, and hugely built-in circuits for RF capabilities in deep submicron CMOS techniques. in addition, the authors display how the structure permits readers to combine an RF front-end with the electronic back-end onto a unmarried silicon die utilizing normal ASIC layout flow.Taking a bottom-up method that steadily builds abilities and information, the ebook starts with an creation to uncomplicated techniques of frequency synthesis after which courses the reader via an all-digital RF frequency synthesizer design:Chapter 2 offers a digitally managed oscillator (DCO), that's the basis of a singular structure, and introduces a time-domain version used for research and VHDL simulationChapter three provides a hierarchical layer of mathematics abstraction to the DCO that makes it more uncomplicated to function algorithmicallyChapter four builds a section correction mechanism round the DCO such that the system's frequency waft or wander functionality suits that of the sturdy exterior frequency referenceChapter five offers an software of the all-digital RF synthesizerChapter 6 describes the behavioral modeling and simulation technique utilized in designThe ultimate bankruptcy offers the implementation of an entire transmitter and experimental effects. the unconventional rules offered the following were applied and confirmed in high-volume, advertisement single-chip radios built at Texas tools: Bluetooth and GSM.While the focal point of the booklet is on RF frequency synthesizer layout, the ideas may be utilized to the layout of alternative digitally assisted analog circuits in addition. This publication is a must-read for college kids and engineers who are looking to research a brand new paradigm for RF frequency synthesis and instant transmitter layout utilizing digitally extensive layout concepts.

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In response to a change in a frequency control word, the PLL output frequency settles to the programmed value with a time-constant inversely related to the loop bandwidth. 21 Alternating divide ratio of fractional-N PLL. Fractional-N PLL can achieve arbitrarily fine time-averaged frequency-division ratio of (N: f ) by modulation of the instantaneous integer division ratio of N and N þ 1. 21 reveals the principle in which the integer division is periodically altered from N to N þ 1. The resulting average divide ratio will be increased from N by the duty cycle of the N þ 1 division: Navg ¼ NTN þ (N þ 1)TNþ1 TNþ1 ¼Nþ ¼ N þ (: f ) ¼ (N: f ) TN þ TNþ1 TN þ TNþ1 (1:19) where f corresponds to the fractional part of the frequency-division ratio.

It consists of a high-frequency prescaler that divides by either L or L þ 1, where L is usually a low-power-of-2 number (8, 16, or 32 are used in practice), and a program counter and swallow counter. The program counter always divides the prescaler output by P, whereas the swallow counter divides the prescaler output by a selectable value of S that determines the channel desired. Both counters operate at lower frequency, fvco =L. It could easily be shown that if S , P, the resulting division ratio is N ¼ PL þ S.

However, for practical reasons it is necessary for the digital signal to have the same frequency as the desired output signal; therefore, falling edge transitions are naturally generated halfway between positive edge transitions. From an information theory standpoint, this is a very efficient mechanism to represent a signal containing phase and frequency information. 2: Time-domain resolution is superior to voltage-domain resolution. The oscillator presented is a cell with only digital inputs/outputs (I/Os) operating in the discrete-time domain, even though the underlying functionality is mainly continuous time and continuous amplitude in nature.

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