By Bernhard Sonnleitner

With contributions by way of various specialists

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Sonnleitner 4 Real Time Considerations A notorious underestimation of the dynamic properties of microbial and cellular populations results from matching the duration of the respective batch cultivations to the relevant time constant of the biosystem under investigation. However, metabolic regulation of enzyme activities and fluxes often takes place on a time scale of seconds rather than days although the latter may also be true. It is therefore in the scope of promoting biotechnological research to adopt and develop appropriate experimental concepts, methodologies and equipment [397].

The stability of enzymes in the sensing systems often limits the use of bio- Fig. 19. Schematic design of a flow injection analysis (FIA) system. A selection valve (top) allows a selection between sample stream and standard(s). The selected specimen is pumped through an injection loop. Repeatedly, the injection valve is switched for a short while so that the contents of the loop are transported by the carrier stream into the dispersion/reaction manifold. g. ; not shown). On its way through the manifold, the original plug undergoes axial dispersion which results in the typical shape of the finally detected signal peak Instrumentation of Biotechnological Processes 27 sensors substantially even though improvements have been reported [94].

Membranes do not only serve as the analytical interface. Schneider et al. [377] have demonstrated that hydrophobic membranes, for example, made from PTFE, mounted either in situ or in bypass, can also be used for preparative removal of ammonium from an animal cell culture. 3 Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) Ruzicka and Hansen [359] characterized flow injection analysis (FIA) as: “… information gathering from a concentration gradient formed from an injected, well-defined zone of a fluid, dispersed into a continuous unsegmented stream 26 B.

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