By Shelly X. Wu, Wolfgang Banzhaf (auth.), George Kampis, István Karsai, Eörs Szathmáry (eds.)

The two-volume set LNAI 5777 and LNAI 5778 constitutes the completely refereed post-conference court cases of the tenth eu convention, ECAl 2009, held in Budapest, Hungary, in September 2009. The 141 revised complete papers provided have been conscientiously reviewed and chosen from161 submissions. The papers are equipped in topical sections on evolutionary developmental biology and undefined, evolutionary robotics, protocells and prebiotic chemistry, structures biology, man made chemistry and neuroscience, staff choice, ecosystems and evolution, algorithms and evolutionary computation, philosophy and humanities, optimization, motion, and agent connectivity, and swarm intelligence.

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Extra resources for Advances in Artificial Life. Darwin Meets von Neumann: 10th European Conference, ECAL 2009, Budapest, Hungary, September 13-16, 2009, Revised Selected Papers, Part II

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The graph-based model is supported by an artificial chemistry, to allow for realistic kinetic behavior of the system. The basic elements of the model are represented as graphs. In case of the metabolites this complies with the intuitive presentation of molecules in chemistry. Similarly, metabolic reactions can be represented as a set of graphs or by one superimposition graph, combining the relevant parts of all involved molecules. The process of the reaction itself is performed by a graph-rewriting mechanism, through which new molecules can be generated.

The fraction of neutral mutations within these neighborhoods will be referred to as the neutrality 24 A. Ullrich and C. Flamm Fig. 4. Random neutral walk from an arbitrary point in genotype space to random neutral neighbors until a certain length is reached. In each step, encountered phenotypes in the one-point mutation neighborhood are protocolled. of the underlying neutral network. In terms of biological systems this can also be regarded as the robustness that is gained through the mapping, since neutrality protects from harmful mutations.

We varied the desired number of roles from 2 to 20 and associated each role-id with a task that has a bonus value of 2. For example, when two roles are desired, the rewarded role-ids are 1 and 2. If an organism replicates after setting its role-id to 1, then it has completed task 1 and as a result, its merit is doubled. Similarly, if five roles are desired, then the rewarded role-ids are {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. If an organism sets its role-id to a value outside this range, then no reward is granted. Additionally, we impose a group-level pressure for both the number of organisms that have set a role-id and the diversity of the role-ids.

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