By Federico De Romanis, Marco Maiuro

Across the Ocean includes 9 essays, every one devoted to a key query within the heritage of the alternate family among the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean from Antiquity to the Early glossy interval: the function of the nation within the purple Sea exchange, Roman coverage within the crimson Sea, the functionality of Trajan s Canal, the pepper alternate, the pearl exchange, the Nabataean middlemen, using gold in historic India, the consistent renewal of the Indian Ocean ports of exchange, and the increase and dying of the VOC."

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Paris 1809–1928). Modern work is represented by Bruyère 1966; Bietak 1975; Holladay 1982 and 1999ab; Redmount 1989 and 1995; Sonnabend 1999; and Cooper 2009. 10 The scholarly literature on the subject is growing: Posener 1938; Calderini 1940; Sijpesteijn 1963; Oertel 1964; Tuplin 1991; Redmount 1995; Mayerson 1996; De Romanis 2002; Aubert 2004a, 2004b, and 2013; Jördens 2007 and 2009; Trombley 2009, with a translation of documents from the Arabic period; Cooper 2009, with an interesting study of the landscape and archaeological remains of the canal in the Eastern Delta; and Sidebotham 2011, 179–82.

If Trajan’s Canal were indeed navigable, at least during the flood season (July through November) or part of it (August through October), IndoMediterranean trade would have suffered from the imbalance imposed by nature as a result of the lack of synchronization between the flood of the Nile and the respective monsoons. Therefore eastbound trade would have benefited from a navigable canal, while westbound trade would have to have used the desert road. This is what I would call the one-way scenario.

12; cf. Brun 2003, 192. 15 Gates 2006, 318; Sidebotham, Hense, and Nouwens 2008, 46; Sidebotham 2011, 147–9. 16 Cf. note 9 above. 17 Gates 2006, 319. 18 Sidebotham and Zitterkopf 1996, 452. 20 wilson for the alternate, and longer, route to Qift’19—but we shall return to a possible explanation for this shortly. Ptolemaic and Roman pottery are both found along the route from Coptos to Myos Hormos. 20 Over the next century or so, however, the balance shifted in favour of the longer route from Coptos to Berenice, probably largely because of the silting of the lagoon that formed the harbour of Myos Hormos.

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