By I M Kolthoff

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Examples of such liquids are soil infusions, beer, milk, fruit juices, foodstuffs, etc. cussion of the subject is GUNTHER LEHMANN 2 A detailed dis- 1 beyond the scope of this monograph. expresses the buffer capacity p g by the equation: r in is is amount added acid (or alkali) which from pHi to pH 2 This method of evaluating buffer capacity is only approximate, and less exact than the equations of VAN SLYKE and his collaborators. which b (and c) denotes the required to change the pH of of a solution .

139, 108 (1924). t ION ACTIVITY SUTHERLAND l 55 went a step further by expressing the opinion strong electrolytes in aqueous solution were completely dissociated into ions. N. BJERRUM 2 arrived at similar conclu- that all on the basis of experimental investigations. The mathe3 (cf MILNER ) of the problem of interionic forces proved to be extremely difficult, and therefore BJERRUM 4 had to be satisfied temporarily with expressing the effects produced by the electrostatic influence of ions by means of empirical "deviation coefficients" These coefficients gave the ratio of the observed value to that which should be obtained in the absence sions matical treatment .

On the classical basis, the reaction between a strong acid and an amino acid would be written: NH RCOOH + H+ * +NH RCOOH. 2 3 According to the theory of BJERKXJM, however: +NH RCOO~ + H+ + +NH RCOOH. 3 The 3 view holds that the basic NH^group is neutralby the strong acid, whereas the modern theory regards the effect of acid on an ampholyte as a liberation of the weak ized classical AMPHOTERIC SUBSTANCES acid +NH RCOOH 3 from the "salt" spect, the behavior of amino acids ammonium acetate +NH RCOO-.

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