By Marie Costa
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Additional resources for Abortion: A Reference Handbook (Contemporary World Issues)
Also in 1969. In Chicago, members of the Chicago Women's Liberation Union begin the illegal feminist abortion collective known as "Jane," which grows out of an abortion referral and counseling service on the University of Chicago campus. Originally the collective steers women to safe and relatively cheap illegal abortions. Gradually, however, members learn how to perform the abortions themselves. Over its four years of operation, Jane will provide more than 11,000 abortions, most of them done in members' own homes.
Mohr also points out that a major loophole in all of the laws "was the necessity to prove intent, which was simply impossible to do, given the tolerant attitude of the American courts toward abortion when an irregular physician treated an unquickened woman for something he claimed he thought was not pregnancy" (p. 41). Further, the laws were designed to punish only the person who administered a potion or performed the surgery; none of them punished the woman involved. 1845 Massachusetts passes the first state law to deal separately and exclusively with abortion.
In questions of ambiguity the embryo is considered female. Middle Christian Era (Eighth through Sixteenth Centuries) According to Hurst (1989), throughout this period abortion is treated as a serious sin of a sexual nature, but it is not considered homicide. D. 675, specify one penalty for abortion before hominization and a different and more serious penalty after hominization. D. 1100, church scholar Ivo of Chartres, while condemning abortion, states that abortion of an "unformed embryo" is not homicide.